In recent studies, mustard has shown antitumor effects and other beneficial properties against chronic conditions, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, weight gain, and neuropathic disease. It might also act as a protective agent against acute conditions such as fungal infection and influenza.
Mustard as a food generally is considered safe. There are no known nutrient-drug interactions with mustard, although high levels of vitamin K in the leaves could interact with certain blood-thinning medications such as warfarin due to vitamin K’s blood-coagulating properties. The vitamin K content could also be a concern to individuals with existing untreated thyroid issues or an iodine deficiency. Due to the high oxalate content of the leaves, those with a history of oxalate-containing kidney stones may wish to limit their intake of mustard leaves. 24
Mustard essential oil can be highly irritable to the skin and mucous membranes. It is not recommended to use mustard oil either internally or externally. However, mustard oil must be specifically extracted and these side effects are not a concern when consuming the condiment, seeds, or leaves.25 While there is little concern about adulteration of culinary mustard, there is a history of adulterating mustard seed oil with argemone (Argemone mexicana, Papaveraceae) oil. In 1998, 2,300 people were affected and 41 people died from adulterated mustard oil in India, resulting in a complete ban of mustard seed oil.26 The ban was subsequently lifted after the adulteration was discovered and corrected. However, mustard seed oil for edible consumption is not recognized as safe in the United States, Canada, and European Union due to its high erucic acid content.27
Reference Source ABC 2018
24. Murray M, Pizzorno J, Pizzorno L. The Encyclopedia of Healing Foods. New York, New York: Atria Books; 2014.
25. Tisserand T, Young R. Essential Oil Safety. 2nd ed. London, UK: Churchill Livingstone; 2014.
26. Babu CK, Khanna SK, Das M. Adulteration of mustard cooking oil with argemone oil: do Indian food regulatory policies and antioxidant therapy both need revisitation? Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007;9(4):515-525.
27. Agriculture and Consumer Protection. SECTION 2: Codex Standards for Fats and Oils from Vegetable Sources. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1999. Available at: www.fao.org/docrep/004/y2774e/y2774e04.htm. Accessed February 22, 2017.